panX: Pan-Genome Analysis and Exploration

Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 9;46(1):e5. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx977.


Horizontal transfer, gene loss, and duplication result in dynamic bacterial genomes shaped by a complex mixture of different modes of evolution. Closely related strains can differ in the presence or absence of many genes, and the total number of distinct genes found in a set of related isolates-the pan-genome-is often many times larger than the genome of individual isolates. We have developed a pipeline that efficiently identifies orthologous gene clusters in the pan-genome. This pipeline is coupled to a powerful yet easy-to-use web-based visualization for interactive exploration of the pan-genome. The visualization consists of connected components that allow rapid filtering and searching of genes and inspection of their evolutionary history. For each gene cluster, panX displays an alignment, a phylogenetic tree, maps mutations within that cluster to the branches of the tree and infers gain and loss of genes on the core-genome phylogeny. PanX is available at Custom pan-genomes can be visualized either using a web server or by serving panX locally as a browser-based application.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms*
  • Bacteria / classification
  • Bacteria / genetics*
  • Computational Biology / methods*
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Genome, Bacterial / genetics*
  • Genomics / methods*
  • Multigene Family
  • Phylogeny
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Software*