Growth trajectory and neurodevelopmental outcome in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia

J Pediatr Surg. 2017 Dec;52(12):1944-1948. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2017.08.063. Epub 2017 Sep 28.


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of impaired growth on short-term neurodevelopmental (ND) outcomes in CDH survivors.

Methods: Between 9/2005-12/2014, 84 of 215 (39%) CDH survivors underwent ND assessment at 12months of age using the BSID-III.

Results: Mean cognitive, language, and motor scores were 92.6±13.5, 87.1±11.6, and 87.0±14.4, respectively (normal 100±15). 51% of patients scored 1 SD below the population mean in at least one domain, and 13% scored 2 SD below the population mean. Group-based trajectory analysis identified two trajectory groups ('high' and 'low') for weight, length, and head circumference (HC) z-scores. (Fig. 1) 74% of the subjects were assigned to the 'high' trajectory group for weight, 77% to the 'high' height group, and 87% to the 'high' HC group, respectively. In multivariate analysis, longer NICU stay (p<0.01) was associated with lower cognitive scores. Motor scores were 11 points higher in the 'high' HC group compared to the 'low' HC group (p=0.05). Motor scores were lower in patients with longer NICU length of stay (p<0.001).

Conclusions: At 1 year, half of CDH survivors had a mild delay in at least one developmental domain. Low HC trajectory was associated with worse neurodevelopmental outcomes.

Type of study: Prognosis Study/Retrospective Study.

Level of evidence: Level II.

Keywords: Bayley scales of infant development; Congenital diaphragmatic hernia; Growth trajectories; Malnutrition; Neurodevelopmental outcome.

MeSH terms

  • Developmental Disabilities / etiology*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital / complications*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Neurodevelopmental Disorders / etiology*
  • Neurologic Examination
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Survivors