Chlorogenic acid (CGA): A pharmacological review and call for further research

Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Jan;97:67-74. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.10.064. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

Abstract

Phenolic acids have recently gained substantial attention due to their various practical, biological and pharmacological effects. Chlorogenic Acid (CGA, 3-CQA) is a most abundant isomer among caffeoylquinic acid isomers (3-, 4-, and 5-CQA), that currently known as 5-CQA as per guidelines of IUPAC. It is one of the most available acids among phenolic acid compounds which can be naturally found in green coffee extracts and tea. CGA is an important and biologically active dietary polyphenol, playing several important and therapeutic roles such as antioxidant activity, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, neuroprotective, anti-obesity, antiviral, anti-microbial, anti-hypertension, free radicals scavenger and a central nervous system (CNS) stimulator. In addition, it has been found that CGA could modulate lipid metabolism and glucose in both genetically and healthy metabolic related disorders. It is speculated that CGA can perform crucial roles in lipid and glucose metabolism regulation and thus help to treat many disorders such as hepatic steatosis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity as well. Furthermore, this phenolic acid (CGA) causes hepatoprotective effects by protecting animals from chemical or lipopolysaccharide-induced injuries. The hypocholesterolemic influence of CGA can result from the altered metabolism of nutrients, including amino acids, glucose and fatty acids (FA). The purpose of this review was to broaden the scope of knowledge of researchers to conduct more studies on this subject to both unveil and optimize its biological and pharmacological effects. As a result, CGA may be practically used as a natural safeguard food additive to replace the synthetic antibiotics and thereby reduce the medicinal cost.

Keywords: Anti-hypertension; Antioxidant; Clinical pharmacology; Food additive; Green coffee extract; Medicinal values.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Obesity Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Obesity Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-Obesity Agents / therapeutic use
  • Biomedical Research / trends*
  • Chlorogenic Acid / chemistry*
  • Chlorogenic Acid / pharmacology*
  • Chlorogenic Acid / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / chemistry
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Lipid Metabolism / drug effects
  • Lipid Metabolism / physiology
  • Metabolic Networks and Pathways / drug effects
  • Metabolic Networks and Pathways / physiology
  • Obesity / drug therapy
  • Obesity / metabolism

Substances

  • Anti-Obesity Agents
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Chlorogenic Acid