Slip safety risk analysis of surface properties using the coefficients of friction of rocks

Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2019 Sep;25(3):443-457. doi: 10.1080/10803548.2017.1395594. Epub 2017 Dec 19.


This study was conducted to determine the most appropriate surface processing techniques (SPT), environmental conditions (EC) and surface roughness (SR) to minimize the risk of slipping when pedestrians walk on a floor covering of rocks barefoot and with shoes. Coefficients of friction (COFs) and values of SR were found using five different types of rocks, four SPT and two (ramp and pendulum) tests. Results indicate that the parameters which affect the COF values of rocks include SR, EC and SPT. Simple linear regression was performed to examine the relationship between the values of the COF and the SR. The value of the COF was identified as R2 ≥ 0.864. Statistical results, which are based on experimental measurements, show that rocks are classified according to their safe use areas depending on their COF and SR values.

Keywords: coefficient of friction; floor surface; rock; slip safety; surface roughness.

MeSH terms

  • Accidental Falls / prevention & control*
  • Calcium Carbonate*
  • Floors and Floorcoverings / standards*
  • Friction*
  • Humans
  • Shoes
  • Surface Properties
  • Walking


  • Calcium Carbonate