Insights into innate immune signalling in controlling cardiac remodelling

Cardiovasc Res. 2017 Nov 1;113(13):1538-1550. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvx130.


Canonical innate immune signalling involves complex cascades: multiple germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors rapidly recognize pathogen-associated or damage-associated molecular patterns to induce the production of cytokines, which bind to their corresponding receptors to orchestrate subsequent host defense phases. Inflammation is a healthy response to pathogenic signals, which are typically rapid and specific, and they terminate once the threat has passed. However, excessive activation or suppression of innate immune or inflammatory responses can lead to considerable human suffering, such as cardiac remodelling. Interestingly, recent studies have revealed that innate immune molecules in the parenchymal cells of the heart influence cardiac homeostasis not only by directly regulating innate immune responses but also through reprogrammed signalling pathways, which are independent of conventional innate immune signalling. Elucidating 'innate immune signalling reprogramming' events will help us better understand the functions of innate immune molecules and, moreover, the pathogenesis of cardiac diseases.

Keywords: Hypertensive ventricular remodelling; Innate immune signalling; Ischaemic heart disease; Reprogramming.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cardiomegaly / immunology*
  • Cardiomegaly / metabolism
  • Cardiomegaly / pathology
  • Cardiomegaly / physiopathology
  • Heart Failure / immunology*
  • Heart Failure / metabolism
  • Heart Failure / pathology
  • Heart Failure / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / immunology*
  • Hypertension / metabolism
  • Hypertension / pathology
  • Hypertension / physiopathology
  • Immunity, Innate*
  • Inflammation Mediators / immunology
  • Inflammation Mediators / metabolism
  • Myocardial Ischemia / immunology*
  • Myocardial Ischemia / metabolism
  • Myocardial Ischemia / pathology
  • Myocardial Ischemia / physiopathology
  • Myocardium / immunology*
  • Myocardium / metabolism
  • Myocardium / pathology
  • Protein Kinases / immunology
  • Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition / immunology
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction
  • Ventricular Remodeling*


  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition
  • Protein Kinases