The prevention of fragility fractures in patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer: a position statement by the international osteoporosis foundation

Oncotarget. 2017 May 18;8(43):75646-75663. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.17980. eCollection 2017 Sep 26.


Androgen deprivation therapy is commonly employed for the treatment of non-metastatic prostate cancer as primary or adjuvant treatment. The skeleton is greatly compromised in men with prostate cancer during androgen deprivation therapy because of the lack of androgens and estrogens, which are trophic factors for bone. Men receiving androgen deprivation therapy sustain variable degrees of bone loss with an increased risk of fragility fractures. Several bone antiresorptive agents have been tested in randomized controlled trials in these patients. Oral bisphosphonates, such as alendronate and risedronate, and intravenous bisphosphonates, such as pamidronate and zoledronic acid, have been shown to increase bone density and decrease the risk of fractures in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy. Denosumab, a fully monoclonal antibody that inhibits osteoclastic-mediated bone resorption, is also effective in increasing bone mineral density and reducing fracture rates in these patients. The assessment of fracture risk, T-score and/or the evaluation of prevalent fragility fractures are mandatory for the selection of patients who will benefit from antiresorptive therapy. In the future, new agents modulating bone turnover and skeletal muscle metabolism will be available for testing in these subjects.

Keywords: ADT; FRAX; androgen deprivation therapy; osteoporosis; zoledronic acid.

Publication types

  • Review