Background: The aim was to investigate whether the use of N-acetylcysteine and ascorbic acid reduce contrast-induced nephropathy incidence in critical care patients.
Methods: This was a one-center, two-arm, prospective, randomized, open-label, controlled trial in the Intensive Care Unit of the University Hospital of Larissa, Greece. Patients with stable renal function, who underwent non urgent contrast-enhanced computed tomography for diagnostic purposes, were included in the study. Patients in the treatment group (NacA, n = 60) received intravenously N-acetylcysteine (1200 mg) and ascorbic acid (2 g) dissolved separately in 100 ml of normal saline 2 hours before, and at 10 hours and 18 hours following the infusion of contrast agent, while control group patients (CG, n = 64) received only normal saline. All patients received additional hydration. Contrast-induced nephropathy was defined as relative increase by 25% of the baseline values of serum creatinine.
Results: Contrast-induced nephropathy in NacA and CG were 18.33% and 15.6%, respectively (p = 0.81). The percentage change median (interquartile range (IR)) of serum cystatin-C (mg/L) from baseline in patients who underwent contrast-induced tomography, were 37.23% (28.53) and 93.20% (46.90) in NacA and in CG, respectively (p = 0.03). The 8-isoprostane serum levels in NacA were significantly lower compared to CG at 2 hours (p = 0.012) and 24 hours (p = 0.006) following radiocontrast infusion. Multivariate analysis revealed that contrast-induced nephropathy was independently associated with a higher baseline ratio of serum urea/creatinine (odds ratio, 1.02; 95 CI%, 1.00-1.05) and with the use of nephrotoxic medications (odds ratio, 0.24; 95 CI%, 0.06-0.94).
Conclusion: Intravenous administration of N-acetylcysteine and ascorbic acid failed to reduce contrast-induced nephropathy in critically ill patients who underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography, despite a significant reduction of 8-isoprostane levels in treated patients.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01017796 . Registered on 20 November 2009.
Keywords: 8-Isoprostane; Ascorbic acid; Contrast induced nephropathy; Intensive care; N-acetylcysteine; cystatin-C.