Background: Goblet cell carcinomas (GCCs) of the appendix are rare and aggressive malignancies with early peritoneal dissemination. The aim of the present article is to describe our experience in the management of GCCs with peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) through cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) and to determine the impact of multiple clinical characteristics on the prognosis.
Methods: From a prospectively maintained database of patients receiving CRS and HIPEC for peritoneal surface malignancy, the data of 15 patients with GCC and PC were collected. Neo-adjuvant laparoscopic HIPEC was performed if indicated. CRS and HIPEC with mitomycin-C or 5-fluorouracil plus oxaliplatin were performed. Adjuvant chemotherapy was also arranged if suitable for the patient's condition.
Results: Nine males and six females with a mean age of 52.4 years were enrolled. The estimated median survival after the diagnosis of GCC with PC and after definitive CRS-HIPEC was 28 and 17 months, respectively. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-year survival rates were 86%, 69%, 57%, and 24%, respectively. Log-rank test revealed that the significant independent risk factors for more favorable outcomes were age >50 years, peritoneal cancer index (PCI) <27, postoperative PCI <20, administration of HIPEC, and adjuvant chemotherapy. Multivariate analyses confirmed that administration of HIPEC played a crucial role in providing prognostic benefit.
Conclusion: The management of GCC with PC remains challenging. We recommend CRS and HIPEC, followed by adjuvant systemic chemotherapy, as a promising strategy to improve survival, especially in selected patients with low PCI and possibility to achieve complete cytoreduction.
Keywords: appendiceal goblet cell carcinomas; cytoreductive surgery; hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy; peritoneal carcinomatosis.