The aim of the present study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) compared to neoadjuvant chemohormonal therapy using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist/antagonist and estramustine. We retrospectively analyzed data within Michinoku Urological Cancer Study Group database containing 2971 PC patients treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) at four institutes between July 1996 and July 2017. We identified 237 and 403 high-risk patients who underwent RP and ePLND (ePLND group), and neoadjuvant chemohormonal therapy followed by RP and limited PLND (neoadjuvant group), respectively. The oncological outcomes and cost-effectiveness were compared between groups. Medical cost calculation focused on PC-related medication and adjuvant radiotherapy. Biochemical recurrence-free and overall survival rates in the neoadjuvant group were significantly higher than those in the ePLND group. Significantly higher number of patients progressed to castration-resistant PC in the ePLND group than in the neoadjuvant group. Background-adjusted multivariate Cox regression analysis using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) revealed that neoadjuvant chemohormonal therapy independently reduced the risk of biochemical recurrence after RP. The 5-year cost per person was significantly higher in the ePLND group than in the neoadjuvant group. Although the present study was retrospective, neoadjuvant chemohormonal therapy followed by RP as a concurrent strategy has potential to improve oncological outcome and cost-effectiveness.
Keywords: Biochemical recurrence; Castration-resistant prostate cancer; Cost-effectiveness; High-risk prostate cancer; Radical prostatectomy.