Peripheral glutamate and TNF-α levels in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage: Their prognostic values and interactions toward the formation of the edemal volume

Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2018 Mar;52(2):207-214. doi: 10.1016/j.pjnns.2017.10.003. Epub 2017 Oct 19.


Objective: We aimed to evaluate the prognostic values, contribution and interactions of the peripheral blood plasma glutamate and tumor-necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels toward the formation of the perifocal edema in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).

Methods: Fifty patients with ICH and fifty healthy controls were included in the study. The peripheral markers were detected by high-sensitivity ELISA.

Results: A highly significant differences in plasma glutamate and TNF-α levels with good separation of their values was detected between patients and healthy controls. The two variables correlated with the severity of the symptoms and the initial volume of the ICH at admission. Both peripheral glutamate and TNF-α levels at admission were estimated as significant predictors for the formation of the perifocal edema five days after ICH; nevertheless, it was shown that they independently contribute to the development of the edema, without effects of interaction and regardless the localization of the ICH.

Conclusions: Our results support the idea for the significance of glutamate and TNF-α as peripheral markers for excitotoxicity and inflammation in ICH patients. The developed multiple regression model for prediction of the development of the edema could be beneficial in decision making between conservative treatment and surgical intervention in the clinical practice.

Keywords: Excitotoxicity; Glutamate; Intracerebral hemorrhage; Perifocal edema; Tumor necrosis factor α.

MeSH terms

  • Brain Edema
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage*
  • Glutamates
  • Humans
  • Prognosis
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha


  • Glutamates
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha