Dietary Intake after Weight Loss and the Risk of Weight Regain: Macronutrient Composition and Inflammatory Properties of the Diet

Nutrients. 2017 Nov 2;9(11):1205. doi: 10.3390/nu9111205.


Weight regain after successful weight loss is a big problem in obesity management. This study aimed to investigate whether weight regain after a weight loss period is correlated with the macronutrient composition and/or the inflammatory index of the diet during that period. Sixty one overweight and obese adults participated in this experimental study. Subjects lost approximately 10% of their initial weight by means of very low-calorie diet for five weeks, or a low calorie diet for 12 weeks. After that, subjects in both groups followed a strict weight maintenance diet based on individual needs for four weeks, which was followed by a nine-month weight maintenance period without dietary counseling. Anthropometrics and dietary intake data were recorded before weight loss (baseline) and during the weight maintenance period. On average, participants regained approximately half of their lost weight. We found no evidence that macronutrient composition during the weight maintenance period was associated with weight regain. The dietary inflammatory index (r = 0.304, p = 0.032) was positively correlated with weight regain and remained significant after correction for physical activity (r = 0.287, p = 0.045). Our data suggest that the inflammatory properties of diet play a role in weight regain after weight loss in overweight and obese adults.

Keywords: inflammation; macronutrient composition; obesity; weight regain.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Caloric Restriction*
  • Counseling
  • Diet / adverse effects*
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation Mediators / blood*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Netherlands
  • Nutritional Status
  • Nutritive Value
  • Obesity / blood
  • Obesity / diagnosis
  • Obesity / diet therapy*
  • Obesity / physiopathology
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Weight Gain*
  • Weight Loss*


  • Biomarkers
  • Inflammation Mediators