Functional Anatomic Computer Engineered Surgery Protocol for the Management of Self-Inflicted Gunshot Wounds to the Maxillofacial Skeleton

J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018 Mar;76(3):580-594. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2017.10.017. Epub 2017 Oct 14.


Purpose: Virtual surgical planning (VSP) is an indispensable aid in craniomaxillofacial reconstruction, yet no protocol is established in facial gunshot wounds. We review our experience with computer-aided reconstruction of self-inflicted facial gunshot wounds (SIGSW'S) and propose a protocol for the staged repair.

Methods: A retrospective case series enrolling patients with SIGSW's managed with the Functional Anatomic Computer Engineered Surgical protocol (FACES) was implemented. Subjects were evaluated at least one month postoperatively. Outcome variables were jaw position, facial projection, oro-nasal communication, lip competence, feeding tube and tracheostomy dependence, descriptive statistics were computed. The FACES protocol implemented during the initial hospitalization is as follows 1) damage control; 2) selective debridement; 3) VSP reconstruction back converted into navigation software 4) navigation assisted midfacial skeletal reconstruction; 5) computer aided oro-mandibular reconstruction with or without microvascular free flaps using custom cutting guides/hardware; 6) navigation assisted, computer aided palatomaxillary reconstruction with or without microvascular free flaps using cutting guides/hardware; 7) navigation assisted reconstruction of the internal orbit; 8) and confirmation of accurate reconstruction using intraoperative CT.

Results: The sample was composed of 10 patients, mean age of 43 years (range, 28 - 62 years, 70% M), 100% with SIGSW's to the submental/submandibular region. All had satisfactory facial projection (n=10), nine had satisfactory jaw position, were decannulated by one month's follow up and were feeding tube independent (90%). All traumatic oro-antral communications were closed (n=8, 7 surgical, 1 obturator), seven had adequate lip competence (70%). Complications included fibula malunion (n=1), plate exposure (n=2) infection (n=2), intracranial abscess (n=1) and microstomia (n=2).

Conclusion: Computer-aided surgery is an indispensable tool in the reconstruction of SIGSW's. Successfully implemented, it proved to be a useful adjunct for: the restoration of orbital volume, facial projection and symmetry; the inset of composite tissue, and the facilitation of dental implant supported prosthetic rehabilitation.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mandibular Reconstruction / methods
  • Maxillofacial Injuries / diagnostic imaging
  • Maxillofacial Injuries / surgery*
  • Middle Aged
  • Plastic Surgery Procedures / methods
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Surgery, Computer-Assisted / methods*
  • Surgery, Oral / methods*
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Wounds, Gunshot / surgery*