Purpose: To examine and compare risks of serious hypoglycemia among antidiabetic monotherapy-treated adults receiving metformin, a sulfonylurea, a meglitinide, or a thiazolidinedione.
Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of apparently new users of monotherapy with metformin, glimepiride, glipizide, glyburide, pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, nateglinide, or repaglinide within a dataset of Medicaid beneficiaries from California, Florida, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. We did not include users of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists, or sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors. We identified serious hypoglycemia outcomes within 180 days following new use using a validated, diagnosis-based algorithm. We calculated age- and sex-standardized outcome occurrence rates for each drug and generated propensity score-adjusted hazard ratios vs metformin using Cox proportional hazards regression.
Results: The ranking of standardized occurrence rates of serious hypoglycemia was glyburide > glimepiride > glipizide > repaglinide > nateglinide > rosiglitazone > pioglitazone > metformin. Rates were increased for all study drugs at higher average daily doses. Adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) vs metformin were 3.95 (3.66-4.26) for glyburide, 3.28 (2.98-3.62) for glimepiride, 2.57 (2.38-2.78) for glipizide, 2.03 (1.64-2.52) for repaglinide, 1.21 (0.89-1.66) for nateglinide, 0.90 (0.75-1.07) for rosiglitazone, and 0.80 (0.68-0.93) for pioglitazone.
Conclusions: Sulfonylureas were associated with the highest rates of serious hypoglycemia. Among all study drugs, the highest rate was seen with glyburide. Pioglitazone was associated with a lower adjusted hazard for serious hypoglycemia vs metformin, while rosiglitazone and nateglinide had hazards similar to that of metformin.
Keywords: hypoglycemia; meglitinide; metformin; pharmacoepidemiology; sulfonylurea compounds; thiazolidinedione.
Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.