Coffee, Alcohol, Smoking and Cancer of the Pancreas: A Case-Control Study

Int J Cancer. 1989 Jan 15;43(1):17-21. doi: 10.1002/ijc.2910430105.


A hospital case control study on smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption as risk factors for pancreatic cancer, in which 161 cases were matched to 268 control patients, was conducted in France between 1982 and 1985. The results showed no association between tobacco or alcohol consumption and cancer of the pancreas, whereas coffee consumption was associated with an increased risk [OR of 2 or more cups per day vs. less: 2.27 (1.11-4.64) and 1.45 (0.82-2.55) among females and males respectively]. A dose-response relationship was observed with coffee consumption in both sexes, stronger among females than among males: the linear increase estimates were 2.00 (1.22-3.29) and 1.32 (0.91-1.92) respectively. No interaction was found between coffee and tobacco, whereas the effect of coffee appeared to be limited to non-drinkers of alcohol.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Alcohol Drinking*
  • Coffee / adverse effects*
  • Epidemiologic Methods
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Smoking / adverse effects*


  • Coffee