Regulation of blood glucose levels and body fat is critical for survival. Leptin circulates freely in blood and controls body weight and food intake mainly through hypothalamic receptors and regulates glucose metabolism in the liver both directly through leptin receptors and indirectly via the hypothalamic receptors of central nervous system. Leptin affects food intake regulation and eventually glucose metabolism, lipometabolism, endocrine and immune functions, reproductive function, adipose tissue metabolism and energy expenditure. Leptin also exerts peripheral effects directly on glucose metabolism and gluconeogenesis. Most of obese human subjects have elevated plasma levels of leptin associated to the size of their total adipose tissue mass. Hence gluconeogenic function may be an essential factor in the regulation of nutritional intake and weight gain. The aim of this review is therefore to identify and module the possible effects of leptin with special application in gluconeogenesis. In addition, this review includes the study of fat consumption and energy expenditure in the body. Specific modulation of leptin receptors and adipose tissues functioning could have important inference on therapeutic strategies.
Keywords: Adipocyte; Energy expenditure; Gluconeogenesis; Glycogen breakdown; Homeostasis; Leptin.
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