Diagnosis and treatment guideline for myopic choroidal neovascularization due to pathologic myopia

Prog Retin Eye Res. 2018 Mar:63:92-106. doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2017.10.005. Epub 2017 Oct 28.


Pathologic myopia is a leading cause of visual impairment. Development of myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is one of the most common complications that leads to central vision loss in patients with pathologic myopia. If left untreated, it can cause scarring with expanding macular atrophy leading to irreversible visual loss in a period as short as 5 years. Advancements in multimodal imaging technology have furthered our understanding of the condition; however, further studies are necessary to extend its utility in the diagnosis of myopic CNV. Intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy has become the standard-of-care and the recommended first-line treatment option for myopic CNV. Long-term studies have demonstrated that early treatment of confirmed myopic CNV cases with an intravitreal anti-VEGF agent is useful to avoid late-stage complications. This strategy has also been shown to achieve visual outcome improvements for up to 4 years and visual stabilization up to 6 years. This review article provides an overview of the current knowledge on myopic CNV and discusses recent updates in the diagnosis and management of the condition. Furthermore, treatment recommendations are provided based on the authors' expert opinions.

Keywords: Anti-VEGF therapy; Myopic choroidal neovascularization; Overview; Prognosis; Treatment recommendations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Choroidal Neovascularization* / diagnosis
  • Choroidal Neovascularization* / drug therapy
  • Choroidal Neovascularization* / etiology
  • Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological
  • Humans
  • Intravitreal Injections
  • Myopia, Degenerative / complications*
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors


  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • VEGFA protein, human
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A