Acute-on-chronic liver failure is a syndrome characterized by acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis, organ failure, and high mortality. Clinical treatment of acute-on-chronic liver failure included comprehensive medical treatment, artificial liver support system, and liver transplantation, but such methods have their own shortcomings and patients tend to have a poor prognosis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), as a new type of cell therapy, have wide sources and are easy to extract and culture. Many studies have shown that MSC treatment not only helps to achieve a high survival rate, but also has good tolerability and safety; therefore, the clinical value of MSCs has become a hot research topic. This article reviews the clinical studies on acute-on-chronic liver failure, related mechanisms, and research advances, in order to provide a reference for future clinical trials and application.
Keywords: Acute-on-chronic liver failure; Cell transplantation; Mesenchymal stem cells.