Background: The combined effect of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone on glucose homeostasis has not been adequately investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the role of parathyroid hormone/vitamin D axis on glucose homeostasis in elderly persons with prediabetes.
Methods: Patients with prediabetes ( n = 144) and healthy age-matched controls ( n = 81) were included in this cross-sectional study. Study parameters included anthropometric characteristics, morning fasting glucose (fasting plasma glucose), insulin (fasting plasma insulin), parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function. Both groups were stratified into subgroups according to vitamin D status and tertiles of parathyroid hormone.
Results: Both groups were comparable in terms of body mass index, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone status. In the prediabetes group, fasting plasma glucose differed significantly across parathyroid hormone tertiles, increasing from the first to the third tertile ( p = 0.011). There were higher fasting plasma glucose values in participants with vitamin D deficiency/parathyroid hormone third tertile compared to all other groups ( p = 0.031, 0.027 and 0.039, respectively).
Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone status is associated with impaired glucose homeostasis; hypovitaminosis D combined with high parathyroid hormone concentrations are associated with glycaemic dysregulation in elderly patients with prediabetes.
Keywords: Vitamin D; glucose homeostasis; insulin resistance; insulin sensitivity; parathyroid hormone; prediabetes.