Adapting the T0-T4 implementation science model to occupational health and safety in agriculture, forestry, and fishing: A scoping review

Am J Ind Med. 2018 Jan;61(1):51-62. doi: 10.1002/ajim.22787. Epub 2017 Nov 8.


Background: Despite much research to develop life-saving innovations for the agriculture, forestry, and fishing workforce, these populations continue to face the highest fatal and non-fatal injury rates in the United States, as many of these solutions are not fully adopted.

Methods: A scoping review was conducted to provide an overview of research to practice efforts in this field. The language used to describe these initiatives, the utility of the NIH T0-T4 model, and the progress along the research to practice continuum were examined.

Results: Fourteen eligible references demonstrated that progress in implementation science is lacking and that there is little consistency in how researchers apply the T0-T4 model; thus, a new model is presented.

Conclusions: Researchers in this field face several challenges when moving from research to practice. While some challenges are addressed with the proposed model, additional resources and infrastructure to support such initiatives are necessary.

Keywords: T0-T4; diffusion; dissemination; implementation; occupational health and safety; research to practice; research translation; widespread adoption.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Agriculture / organization & administration*
  • Fisheries / organization & administration*
  • Forestry / organization & administration*
  • Health Plan Implementation / organization & administration*
  • Humans
  • Models, Organizational*
  • Occupational Diseases / prevention & control
  • Occupational Health*
  • Occupational Injuries / prevention & control
  • Safety Management / organization & administration*
  • United States