Investigation of retinal neurochemistry in a well-defined chick model of form-deprivation myopia indicated that dopamine and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid are reduced in myopic as compared to control eyes. The reduction in retinal dopamine is evident only during light adaptation and is accompanied by a decreased rate of dopamine biosynthesis. To test whether the alteration in dopamine metabolism is related to eye growth, agents known to interact with dopamine receptors were administered locally to deprived eyes. Remarkably, the expected growth in the axial dimension was reduced, while that in the equatorial dimension was not. Therefore retinal dopamine may participate in the pathway linking visual experience and the postnatal regulation of the eye's growth in the axial dimension. The mechanism for control of chick eye growth in the equatorial dimension remains unknown.