Safety and immunogenicity of Clostridium difficile toxoid vaccine in Japanese adults

Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2018 Feb 1;14(2):322-328. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2017.1395538. Epub 2017 Dec 6.


This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase I/II study conducted in a Japanese cohort to assess the safety and immunogenicity of Clostridium difficile vaccine (the same formulation as that used in the ongoing global Phase III study). Healthy Japanese adults aged 40-75 years were randomized to receive either C. difficile vaccine (N = 67) or placebo (N = 34) by intramuscular injection on Days 0, 7, and 30. Serum IgG specific for toxins A and B was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and in vitro functional activity by toxin neutralizing assay (TNA). The seroconversion rate (percentage of participants with a ≥4-fold rise in antibody levels from baseline) was high for both toxin A (ELISA and TNA) and toxin B (ELISA), approaching 100% for each by Day 60. For toxin B assessed by TNA, however, the response was lower, with the seroconversion rate not rising significantly beyond the value of 42.9% seen on Day 14 (44.4% at Day 60). Although the response in the participants who were seronegative at baseline was slower than that in those who were seropositive, seroconversion was seen in nearly all (100%) subjects by Day 60, with the exception of the response to toxin B evaluated using TNA (16-18% on Days 14-60). The proportion of participants with solicited local reactions, solicited systemic reactions, and vaccine-related unsolicited reactions were 67.6%, 19.1%, and 20.6%, respectively. Most of the adverse reactions were mild to moderate in intensity, occurring within 3 days post-vaccination, and resolving by 3-6 days post-vaccination. There were no withdrawals due to adverse events and no serious adverse events. These data confirm the safety and immunogenicity of C. difficile vaccine in Japanese adults.

Keywords: Clostridium difficile; immunogenicity; safety; vaccine.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase I
  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antibodies, Bacterial / blood
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • Bacterial Toxins / immunology*
  • Clostridioides difficile / immunology*
  • Clostridioides difficile / metabolism
  • Clostridium Infections / prevention & control*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Seroconversion


  • Antibodies, Bacterial
  • Bacterial Toxins