Purpose To compare intravascular contrast enhancement produced by the manganese-based magnetic resonance (MR) imaging contrast agent manganese-N-picolyl-N,N',N'-trans-1,2-cyclohexenediaminetriacetate (Mn-PyC3A) to gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) and to evaluate the excretion, pharmacokinetics, and metabolism of Mn-PyC3A. Materials and Methods Contrast material-enhanced MR angiography was performed in baboons (Papio anubis; n = 4) by using Mn-PyC3A and Gd-DTPA. Dynamic imaging was performed for 60 minutes following Mn-PyC3A injection to monitor distribution and elimination. Serial blood sampling was performed to quantify manganese and gadolinium plasma clearance by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and to characterize Mn-PyC3A metabolism by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Intravascular contrast enhancement in the abdominal aorta and brachiocephalic artery was quantified by measuring contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) versus muscle at 9 seconds following Mn-PyC3A or Gd-DTPA injection. Plasma pharmacokinetics were modeled with a biexponential function, and data were compared with a paired t test. Results Aorta versus muscle CNR (mean ± standard deviation) with Mn-PyC3A and Gd-DTPA was 476 ± 77 and 538 ± 120, respectively (P = .11). Brachiocephalic artery versus muscle CNR was 524 ± 55 versus 518 ± 140, respectively (P = .95). Mn-PyC3A was eliminated via renal and hepatobiliary excretion with similar pharmacokinetics to Gd-DTPA (area under the curve between 0 and 30 minutes, 20.2 ± 3.1 and 17.0 ± 2.4, respectively; P = .23). High-performance liquid chromatography revealed no evidence of Mn-PyC3A biotransformation. Conclusion Mn-PyC3A enables contrast-enhanced MR angiography with comparable contrast enhancement to gadolinium-based agents and may overcome concerns regarding gadolinium-associated toxicity and retention. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.