The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between digoxin and propafenone were investigated in 10 hospitalized patients with heart disease and cardiac arrhythmias. During steady state (0.25 mg/day) the glycoside was combined with 600 mg of propafenone daily for 1 week. The mean +/- SD serum digoxin concentration (SDC) was 0.97 +/- 0.29 ng/ml before and 1.54 +/- 0.65 ng/ml (p less than 0.003) during propafenone administration. Propafenone induced a mean decrease in 31.1 and 31.7% in total and renal digoxin clearances, respectively. The increase in SDCs was accompanied by a decrease in heart rate (HR) and shortening of QTC (QT interval corrected for HR). In patients receiving digoxin and propafenone simultaneously, the SDCs should be monitored and the digoxin dose reduced if there is evidence of toxicity.