Purpose of review: To review recent advances and controversies in all aspects of carcinoid-syndrome.
Recent findings: Over the last few years there have been a number of advances in all aspects of carcinoid syndrome as well as new therapies. These include new studies on its epidemiology which demonstrate it is increasing in frequency; increasing insights into the pathogenesis of its various clinical manifestations and into its natural history: definition of prognostic factors; new methods to verify its presence; the development of new drugs to treat its various manifestations, both initially and in somatostatin-refractory cases; and an increased understanding of the pathogenesis, natural history and management of carcinoid heart disease. These advances have generated several controversies and these are also reviewed.
Summary: There have been numerous advances in all aspects of the carcinoid-syndrome, which is the most common functional syndrome neuroendocrine tumors produce. These advances are leading to new approaches to the management of these patients and in some cases to new controversies.