CRISPR-Cas genome editing technologies have revolutionized modern molecular biology by making targeted DNA edits simple and scalable. These technologies are developed by domesticating naturally occurring microbial adaptive immune systems that display wide diversity of functionality for targeted nucleic acid cleavage. Several CRISPR-Cas single effector enzymes have been characterized and engineered for use in mammalian cells. The unique properties of the single effector enzymes can make a critical difference in experimental use or targeting specificity. This review describes known single effector enzymes and discusses their use in genome engineering applications.