Organizing pneumonia (OP) is a common pattern of lung injury that can be associated with a wide range of etiologies. Typical and not-so-typical imaging features of OP occur, as both common and rare lung pathologies can mimic the same imaging pattern as that of OP. This article will attempt to describe the difference between confusing terminologies that have been used in the past for OP and existence of primary versus secondary OP. The role of a multidisciplinary approach as an essential component to correctly diagnose and effectively manage challenging cases of OP will be highlighted. Additionally, we will discuss the limitation of transbronchial and importance of open lung biopsy to make the correct diagnosis. One example of an emerging diagnosis in the spectrum of OP and diffuse alveolar damage is acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia. Ultimately, the reader should feel comfortable recognizing the many variable presentations of OP and be able to participate knowledgeably in a multidisciplinary team after reading this article. OP is a disease entity with variable radiographic and distinct histological characteristics that requires a multidisciplinary approach to correctly diagnose cryptogenic OP. Classic radiologic findings of OP occur in as low as 60% of cases. Secondary causes include infections, neoplasms, inflammatory disorders, and iatrogenic. Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia can appear similarly, but miliary nodules are a clue to diagnosis.
Keywords: Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP); Alveolar proteinosis; Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP); Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP); Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD); Organizing pneumonia (OP); Reverse halo sign.
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