Outcomes of abdominal trauma patients with hemorrhagic shock requiring emergency laparotomy: efficacy of intra-aortic balloon occlusion

Acute Med Surg. 2016 May 10;3(4):345-350. doi: 10.1002/ams2.212. eCollection 2016 Oct.


Aim: The aims of this study were to investigate outcomes of abdominal trauma in patients with hemorrhagic shock requiring emergency laparotomy and clarify the beneficial effects of intra-aortic balloon occlusion (IABO) for intra-abdominal hemorrhage in patients with critically uncontrollable hemorrhagic shock (CUHS).

Methods: We reviewed 44 hemorrhagic shock patients who underwent emergency laparotomy for intra-abdominal hemorrhage over a 6-year period. Of these patients, we examined data for 19 subjects who underwent IABO during initial resuscitation to control massive intra-abdominal bleeding leading to CUHS.

Results: The average Injury Severity Score and probability of survival (Ps) of the 44 patients were 27.6 ± 15.4 and 0.735 ± 0.304, respectively, and the overall survival rate was 77.3%. The differences in the Glasgow Coma Scale, lactate level, prothrombin time - international normalized ratio, and Ps between the two groups (21 responders and 23 non-responders) were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Intra-aortic balloon occlusion was attempted in 19 of 23 patients (82.6%) with CUHS, and there were no statistically significant differences in presenting Glasgow Coma Scale, body temperature, lactate, prothrombin time - international normalized ratio, or Revised Trauma Score between the survivors (n = 12) and non-survivors (n = 7). The only significant differences between these two groups were observed in Injury Severity Score (P = 0.047) and Ps (P = 0.007). In all patients, the balloons were successfully placed in 8.1 ± 3.3 min in the thoracic aorta, and a significant increase in systolic blood pressure was observed immediately after IABO.

Conclusion: The IABO procedure can be life-saving in the management of patients with CUHS arising from intra-abdominal hemorrhage, permitting transport to surgery.

Keywords: Critically uncontrollable hemorrhagic shock; intra‐abdominal hemorrhage; intra‐aortic balloon occlusion; trauma.