Association between Healthy Eating Index-2010 and Fetuin-A Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: a Case-Control Study

Clin Nutr Res. 2017 Oct;6(4):296-305. doi: 10.7762/cnr.2017.6.4.296. Epub 2017 Oct 31.

Abstract

The Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) assesses compliance with the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Studies suggest that adherence to the HEI-2010 is related to lower the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Fetuin-A, a novel biomarker for T2D, may play a linking role in the inverse association between HEI-2010 and T2D. Thus, a case-control analysis involving 107 patients with T2D and107 healthy subjects was conducted to determine the association between HEI-2010 and serum fetuin-A levels. The results of simple regression analysis showed that fetuin-A levels were positively associated with full name of body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.001), waist circumference (WC) (p < 0.001), fasting blood glucose (FBG) (p < 0.001), triglycerides (TG) (p = 0.003), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) (p < 0.001), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p =0.001) and negatively associated with physical activity (PA) (p < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (p = 0.022), and HEI-2010 (p < 0.001) in all subjects. After controlling for confounders, the inverse association between fetuin-A and HEI-2010 remained significant in the subjects with T2D (β = -0.386; p < 0.001), 107 healthy controls (β = -0.237; p = 0.028), and all subjects (β = -0.298; p < 0.001). In conclusion, the present results suggested that higher quality diet assessed by HEI-2010 associates with lower serum fetuin-A levels in people with and without T2D. More studies are needed to confirm these findings.

Keywords: Fetuin-A; Healthy eating index-2010; Type 2 diabetes.