Tumor necrosis factor enhances replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989 Jan 16;158(1):307-12. doi: 10.1016/s0006-291x(89)80213-x.


The effect of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) on the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was investigated in several T4 lymphocyte cell lines. TNF markedly enhanced the cytopathogenicity of HIV-1, virion-associated reverse transcriptase (RT) activity in the cell culture supernatant, and viral antigen expression in MOLT-4 cells as early as 3 days after HIV-1 infection. A slight increase in RT activity was also observed in the supernatant of H9 cell cultures exposed to TNF. However, TNF did not increase either RT activity in MT-4 cell supernatants or viral antigen expression in HUT-78 cells. Thus, TNF is able to stimulate the replication of HIV-1 in de novo infected T4 cells although not all T4 cells seem to be sensitive to this stimulatory effect.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antigens, Viral / analysis
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • HIV-1 / drug effects
  • HIV-1 / physiology*
  • HIV-1 / ultrastructure
  • Humans
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology*
  • Virus Replication / drug effects*


  • Antigens, Viral
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha