Sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism and stone disease: a comprehensive metabolic evaluation before and after parathyroidectomy

BJU Int. 2018 Feb;121(2):281-288. doi: 10.1111/bju.14072. Epub 2017 Nov 28.


Objectives: To characterize the stone risk and the impact of parathyroidectomy on the metabolic profile of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and urolithiasis.

Patients and methods: We analysed the prospectively collected charts of patients treated at our stone clinic between January 2001 and January 2016 searching for patients with PHPT and urolithiasis. Imaging evaluation of the kidneys, bones and parathyroid glands was assessed. We analysed the demographic data, serum and urinary variables before and after parathyroidectomy. We used a paired t-test, Fisher's test, Spearman's test and anova in the statistical analysis.

Results: A total of 51 patients were included. The mean patient age was 57.1 ± 12.1 years and 82.4% were women. Before parathyroidectomy, mean calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were 11.2 ± 1.0 mg/dL and 331 ± 584 pg/dL, respectively. Hypercalcaemia was present in 84.3% of patients. All eight patients with normal calcium levels had elevated PTH levels. Only two patients did not have PTH above the normal range, although both had elevated calcium levels. The most common urinary disorders were low urinary volume (64.7%), hypercalciuria (60.8%), high urinary pH (41.2%) and hypocitraturia (31.4%). After parathyroidectomy, the number of patients with hypercalcaemia (n = 4; 7.8%), elevated PTH (n = 17; 33.3%) and hypophosphataemia (n = 3; 5.9%) significantly decreased (P < 0.001). The number of urinary abnormalities decreased and there was a reduction in urinary calcium (P < 0.001), pH (P = 0.001) and citrate levels (P = 0.003).

Conclusion: Individuals with PHPT and nephrolithiasis frequently have elevated baseline PTH and calcium levels. Low volume, hypercalciuria, high urinary pH, and hypocitraturia are the most frequent urinary disorders. Parathyroidectomy is effective in normalizing serum calcium and PTH levels, although other urinary metabolic may persist. Patients should be monitored for the need for citrate supplementation.

Keywords: kidney calculi; metabolic evaluation; primary hyperparathyroidism.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Calcium / blood
  • Calcium / urine
  • Citric Acid / urine
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Hypercalcemia / blood
  • Hypercalcemia / etiology
  • Hypercalciuria / etiology
  • Hypercalciuria / urine
  • Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / blood
  • Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications*
  • Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery*
  • Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / urine
  • Hypophosphatemia / blood
  • Hypophosphatemia / etiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Parathyroid Hormone / blood
  • Parathyroidectomy*
  • Postoperative Period
  • Preoperative Period
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Urine / chemistry
  • Urolithiasis / blood
  • Urolithiasis / complications*
  • Urolithiasis / urine


  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Citric Acid
  • Calcium