Activity-regulated protein synthesis, especially in the restricted synaptic domains, is critical to maintaining connections and communication between neurons. Accumulating evidence has linked dysregulated translation to various neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative diseases. In the past 3 decades, after finding ribosomes and specific mRNAs localized around synapses, a significant amount of work has furthered our understanding of how the genetic sequences in mRNAs and their cognate RNA-binding proteins are coordinated to build up synaptic proteomes. Recent exciting findings of various RNA modifications, specialized ribosomes, and their regulatory roles in translation have led to emerging needs to unravel how synaptic ribosomes interpret these hidden codes to regulate molecular connectomes.
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