Mitochondrial protein (MP) dysfunction has been linked to neurodegenerative disorders (NDs); however, the discovery of the molecular mechanisms underlying NDs has been impeded by the limited characterization of interactions governing MP function. Here, using mass spectrometry (MS)-based analysis of 210 affinity-purified mitochondrial (mt) fractions isolated from 27 epitope-tagged human ND-linked MPs in HEK293 cells, we report a high-confidence MP network including 1,964 interactions among 772 proteins (>90% previously unreported). Nearly three-fourths of these interactions were confirmed in mouse brain and multiple human differentiated neuronal cell lines by primary antibody immunoprecipitation and MS, with many linked to NDs and autism. We show that the SOD1-PRDX5 interaction, critical for mt redox homeostasis, can be perturbed by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked SOD1 allelic variants and establish a functional role for ND-linked factors coupled with IκBɛ in NF-κB activation. Our results identify mechanisms for ND-linked MPs and expand the human mt interaction landscape.
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