Allogeneic ovarian transplantation using immunomodulator preimplantation factor (PIF) as monotherapy restored ovarian function in olive baboon

J Assist Reprod Genet. 2018 Jan;35(1):81-89. doi: 10.1007/s10815-017-1051-y. Epub 2017 Nov 11.


Purpose: Allogeneic ovarian transplantation may be an alternative in the future to oocyte donation in women with premature ovarian failure. The objectives of this study were to (a) evaluate allotransplantation feasibility for restoration of ovarian function and (b) assess efficacy of synthetic preimplantation factor (PIF) monotherapy as sole immune-acceptance regimen.

Methods: This is an experimental animal study using non-human primates (Papio anubis). Allogeneic orthotopic ovarian tissue transplantation was performed in two female olive baboons. PIF was administered as a monotherapy to prevent immune rejection and achieve transplant maintenance and function. Subjects underwent bilateral oophorectomy followed by cross-transplantation of prepared ovarian cortex. Postoperatively, subjects were monitored for clinical and biochemical signs of graft rejection and return of function. Weekly blood samples were obtained to monitor graft acceptance and endocrine function restoration.

Results: Postoperatively, there were no clinical signs of rejection. Laboratory parameters (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine) did not indicate organ rejection at any stage of the experiment. Initially, significant loss of follicles was noticed after grafting and serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and E2 levels were consistent with ovarian failure. Seven months after transplantation, one animal exhibited recurrence of ovarian endocrine function (perineal swelling, E2 rise, FSH decrease, and return of menstruation).

Conclusions: Organ rejection after allogeneic ovarian transplantation was prevented using PIF as monotherapy for the first time and no side effects were recorded. The study suggests the clinical feasibility of ovarian allotransplantation to obtain ovarian function.

Keywords: Allotransplantation; Baboon; Fertility preservation; Ovarian graft; Ovary; PIF; POF; POI; Preimplantation factor; Premature ovarian failure; Premature ovarian insufficiency; Transplantation.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Female
  • Graft Rejection / prevention & control
  • Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use*
  • Ovariectomy / veterinary
  • Ovary / drug effects
  • Ovary / physiology
  • Ovary / transplantation*
  • Papio anubis
  • Peptides / therapeutic use*
  • Primary Ovarian Insufficiency / rehabilitation
  • Primary Ovarian Insufficiency / therapy*
  • Transplantation Conditioning / methods
  • Transplantation Conditioning / veterinary
  • Transplantation, Homologous


  • Immunologic Factors
  • Peptides
  • preimplantation factor, synthetic