Measurements of Sexuality-Based Stigma among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men (GBMSM) in Resource-Poor Settings: A Review

AIDS Behav. 2018 May;22(5):1614-1638. doi: 10.1007/s10461-017-1975-3.


Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) in resource-poor settings are disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. GBMSM living in these settings may face unique barriers to HIV prevention, including legal barriers and increased sexuality-based stigma. It is therefore imperative to tailor HIV prevention and care resources to recognize the lived realities of GBMSM in these settings. Central to this is the accurate measurement of sexuality-based stigma. However, there is wide inconsistency in how sexuality-based stigma is measured among GBMSM in resource-poor settings. This paper reviews recent studies of sexuality-based stigma among GBMSM in resource-poor settings, finding great variability in measurements. The results of the review call for greater attention to the development of contextually and culturally specific measures of sexuality-based stigma for GBMSM living in resource-poor settings.

Keywords: MSM; Measurement; Resource poor settings; Stigma.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bisexuality / psychology*
  • Homosexuality, Male / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Perception
  • Social Stigma*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*