Micronutrients or non-energetic nutrients (NEN) are needed in reduced amounts, but are essential for many mosquito physiological processes that influence biological traits from vector competence to reproductive capacity. The NEN include amino acids (AA), vitamins, salts, metals and sterols. Free AA plays critical roles controlling most physiological processes, from digestion to reproduction. Particularly proline connects metabolic pathways in energy production, flight physiology and ammonia detoxification. Metal, in particular iron and calcium, salts, sterol and vitamin homeostasis are critical for cell signaling, respiration, metabolism and reproduction. Micronutrient homeostasis influence the symbiotic relationships with microorganisms, having important implications in mosquitoes' nutrition, physiology and behavior, as well as in mosquito immunity and vector competence.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.