Objective: Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine produced by Th1 cells and macrophages. The rationale of this study was to examine and validate possible contributions of IL-10 promoter polymorphisms in sub-Saharan Africa in children infected with either Plasmodium falciparum or Schistosoma haematobium and in children co-infected with both parasites.
Materials and methods: A total of 309 Nigerian children aged 4-15 years were recruited. The study group consisted of individuals infected either with P. falciparum (n = 76) or S. haematobium (n = 94) in mono-infections, a group of children co-infected with both P. falciparum and S. haematobium (n = 62) and matched healthy controls (n = 77). The IL-10 promoter polymorphisms -1082G/A, -819C/T and -592C/A were genotyped by direct sequencing.
Results: The frequencies of the IL-10 -1082GG genotype, the -1082G allele and haplotype GCC (positions -1082, -819 and -592) were higher in children infected with P. falciparum than in healthy controls, indicating that the -1082GG genotype and the -1082G allele and the GCC haplotype are associated with increased susceptibility to malaria infection (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.2-10.8, P = 0.02; OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.1-3.4, P = 0.02; OR = 3.8, 95% CI = 2.0-7.2, P = 0.0001, respectively). Children with the -1082GG genotype had a higher parasitaemia than children with the -1082AA or -1082AG genotypes (P = 0.0017). Haplotype GCC occurred more frequently in children infected with S. haematobium, while haplotype GTA was less frequent than in controls (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2-4.4, P = 0.017 and OR = 0.1, 95% CI = 0.02-0.5, P = 0.0004, respectively). No differences in the frequencies of IL-10 promoter polymorphisms were observed between children with P. falciparum-S. haematobium co-infections and healthy controls.
Conclusion: Although IL-10 promoter polymorphisms are not associated with P. falciparum and S. haematobium co-infection, variant -1082G/A and haplotype GCC are associated with malaria, whereas the IL-10 haplotypes GCC and GTA are associated with schistosomiasis.
Keywords: IL-10 polymorphism; Malaria; co-infection; coinfection; immune response; malaria; paludisme; polymorphisme de IL10; réponse immunitaire; schistosomiase; schistosomiasis.
© 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.