Cerebral amyloid angiopathy associated with inflammation: A systematic review of clinical and imaging features and outcome

Int J Stroke. 2018 Apr;13(3):257-267. doi: 10.1177/1747493017741569. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

Abstract

Background Cerebral amyloid angiopathy associated with inflammation is an increasingly recognized condition, characterized by an inflammatory response to the vascular deposits of β-amyloid within the brain that are the hallmark of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Two main patterns of this inflammatory response have been identified to date: one involving a perivascular inflammatory cell infiltrate (cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation); the other a transmural vasculitic process (A-beta related angiitis). Unlike cerebral amyloid angiopathy itself, which predisposes to intracerebral hemorrhage and has no known treatment, cerebral amyloid angiopathy associated with inflammation typically presents in diverse ways and diagnosis may be challenging and delayed. Aims We sought to summarize the clinical features, imaging appearances and available data on outcome and treatment responses, using information derived from a systematic review of pathologically proven cases of cerebral amyloid angiopathy associated with inflammation. Summary of review We identified 213 distinct pathologically proven cases of cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation/A-beta related angiitis, from 104 publications. The clinical presentation, imaging features, pathology, treatment, and outcomes of cerebral amyloid angiopathy associated with inflammation are described. Conclusions Cerebral amyloid angiopathy associated with inflammation is an important and increasingly recognized clinical condition, which affects the older patient population and presents most commonly with cognitive decline, seizures, and headaches. Future research is required to develop and validate diagnostic criteria and determine optimum treatment strategies.

Keywords: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy; inflammation; outcome; brain microbleeds; diagnosis; inflammatory; cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy* / complications
  • Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy* / diagnostic imaging
  • Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Inflammation* / complications
  • Inflammation* / diagnostic imaging
  • Inflammation* / therapy
  • Neuroimaging / methods*
  • Treatment Outcome*