The study was based on the use of a toothpaste with antiphlogistic activity, containing Australian Melaleuca alternifolia oil (tea tree oil-TTO) and ethanolic extract of Polish propolis (EEP). Fifty-one patients with varying conditions of the gingiva were divided into two groups. The study group received the toothpaste with TTO and EEP, while the control group received the same toothpaste but without TTO and EEP. Approximal plaque index (API), simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-s) and modified sulcus bleeding index (mSBI) were assessed in three subsequent stages. During each examination, swabs were employed for microbiological inoculation. During the period of use of toothpastes with TTO and EEP, a significant reduction of the API was observed, as assessed upon the control visit after 7 days and after 28 days, compared to baseline. A statistically significant reduction of mSBI was observed after 7 and 28 days of using the toothpaste with TTO and EEP, as compared to the value upon the initial visit. Statistically significant differences in the OHI-s value were observed in the study group, which was using the active toothpaste. The use of a toothpaste containing TTO and EEP helps to maintain microbiome balance. The observed stabilisation of bacterial microflora confirms the beneficial activity of toothpaste containing EEP and TTO compared to the control group, where the lack of these substances contributed to the emergence of qualitative and quantitative changes in oral microbiome.
Keywords: oral hygiene; oral microbiome; propolis; tea tree oil.