Spexin (SPX) and kisspeptin (KISS) are novel peptides relevant in the context of regulation of metabolism, food intake, puberty and reproduction. Here, we studied changes of serum SPX and KISS levels in female non-obese volunteers (BMI<25 kg/m(2)) and obese patients (BMI>35 kg/m(2)). Correlations between SPX or KISS with BMI, McAuley index, QUICKI, HOMA IR, serum levels of insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin, orexin-A, obestatin, ghrelin and GLP-1 were assessed. Obese patients had lower SPX and KISS levels as compared to non-obese volunteers (SPX: 4.48+/-0.19 ng/ml vs. 6.63+/-0.29 ng/ml; p<0.001, KISS: 1.357+/-0.15 nmol/l vs. 2.165+/-0.174 nmol/l; p<0.01). SPX negatively correlated with BMI, HOMA-IR, insulin, glucagon, active ghrelin and leptin. Positive correlations were found between SPX and QUICKI index, McAuley index, serum levels of obestatin, GLP-1 and adiponectin and orexin-A Serum KISS negatively correlated with BMI, HOMA-IR, serum levels of insulin, glucagon, active ghrelin and leptin. KISS positively correlated with QUICKI index, McAuley index and adiponectin. In summary, SPX and KISS show negative correlations with obesity, insulin resistance indices, and hormones known to affect insulin sensitivity in females. Both, SPX and KISS could be therefore relevant in the pathophysiology of obesity and insulin resistance.