The complex diversity of nonpathogenic microbes that colonize the human body, known as microbiota, exert considerable effects on physiological homeostasis, and immune regulation. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a bacterium that frequently colonizes human stomach and is a major pathogenic agent for peptic ulcer diseases, gastric cancer, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Due to its acidic pH and peristaltic movements, the stomach has been considered a hostile environment for most microorganisms, however various commensal microorganisms are capable of colonizing the stomach to form a stomach niche. Recent pieces of evidence indicate that commensal gastric microbes or their metabolites influence the capability of H. pylori to colonize the stomach and directly modulate its pathogenicity and carcinogenic potential. In this article, we present an overview of recent advances in the understanding of H. pylori-commensal interactions in the pathogenesis and clinical evolution of H. pylori-associated gastric malignancies.
Keywords: Dysbiosis; Gastric MALT-lymphoma; Gastric cancer; Helicobacter pylori; Microbiota; Probiotic.
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