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. 2017 Nov 15;7(1):15644.
doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-15480-9.

The Maternal Genetic Make-Up of the Iberian Peninsula Between the Neolithic and the Early Bronze Age

Anna Szécsényi-Nagy  1 Christina Roth  2 Guido Brandt  3 Cristina Rihuete-Herrada  4 Cristina Tejedor-Rodríguez  5 Petra Held  2 Íñigo García-Martínez-de-Lagrán  5 Héctor Arcusa Magallón  5 Stephanie Zesch  6 Corina Knipper  7 Eszter Bánffy  8 Susanne Friederich  9 Harald Meller  9 Primitiva Bueno Ramírez  10 Rosa Barroso Bermejo  10 Rodrigo de Balbín Behrmann  10 Ana M Herrero-Corral  11 Raúl Flores Fernández  12 Carmen Alonso Fernández  13 Javier Jiménez Echevarria  13 Laura Rindlisbacher  14 Camila Oliart  4 María-Inés Fregeiro  4 Ignacio Soriano  4 Oriol Vicente  4 Rafael Micó  4 Vicente Lull  4 Jorge Soler Díaz  15 Juan Antonio López Padilla  15 Consuelo Roca de Togores Muñoz  15 Mauro S Hernández Pérez  16 Francisco Javier Jover Maestre  16 Joaquín Lomba Maurandi  17 Azucena Avilés Fernández  17 Katina T Lillios  18 Ana Maria Silva  19   20 Miguel Magalhães Ramalho  21 Luiz Miguel Oosterbeek  22 Claudia Cunha  23 Anna J Waterman  24 Jordi Roig Buxó  25 Andrés Martínez  26 Juana Ponce Martínez  27 Mark Hunt Ortiz  27 Juan Carlos Mejías-García  27 Juan Carlos Pecero Espín  27 Rosario Cruz-Auñón Briones  27 Tiago Tomé  28 Eduardo Carmona Ballestero  29 João Luís Cardoso  30 Ana Cristina Araújo  31 Corina Liesau von Lettow-Vorbeck  32 Concepción Blasco Bosqued  32 Patricia Ríos Mendoza  32 Ana Pujante  33 José I Royo-Guillén  34 Marco Aurelio Esquembre Beviá  35 Victor Manuel Dos Santos Goncalves  36 Rui Parreira  36 Elena Morán Hernández  36 Elena Méndez Izquierdo  37 Jorge Vega Y Miguel  38 Roberto Menduiña García  38 Victoria Martínez Calvo  39 Oscar López Jiménez  39 Johannes Krause  3 Sandra L Pichler  14 Rafael Garrido-Pena  32 Michael Kunst  40 Roberto Risch  4 Manuel A Rojo-Guerra  41 Wolfgang Haak  3   42 Kurt W Alt  43   44
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Free PMC article

The Maternal Genetic Make-Up of the Iberian Peninsula Between the Neolithic and the Early Bronze Age

Anna Szécsényi-Nagy et al. Sci Rep. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Agriculture first reached the Iberian Peninsula around 5700 BCE. However, little is known about the genetic structure and changes of prehistoric populations in different geographic areas of Iberia. In our study, we focus on the maternal genetic makeup of the Neolithic (~ 5500-3000 BCE), Chalcolithic (~ 3000-2200 BCE) and Early Bronze Age (~ 2200-1500 BCE). We report ancient mitochondrial DNA results of 213 individuals (151 HVS-I sequences) from the northeast, central, southeast and southwest regions and thus on the largest archaeogenetic dataset from the Peninsula to date. Similar to other parts of Europe, we observe a discontinuity between hunter-gatherers and the first farmers of the Neolithic. During the subsequent periods, we detect regional continuity of Early Neolithic lineages across Iberia, however the genetic contribution of hunter-gatherers is generally higher than in other parts of Europe and varies regionally. In contrast to ancient DNA findings from Central Europe, we do not observe a major turnover in the mtDNA record of the Iberian Late Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age, suggesting that the population history of the Iberian Peninsula is distinct in character.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Map of the studied sites, including the published reference data and timing of archaeological periods on the Iberian Peninsula and in Central Europe. Geographic regions, also differentiated in the mtDNA analyses, are indicated as: NEI: northeast, SEI: southeast, SWI: southwest Iberia. Numbers on the map are colored according to the chronological periods, represented in the lower part of the figure. For the Central European chronology we used records from the most important comparative region of central German Mittelelbe-Saale. See Supplementary Table S5 for further details. Site codes: 1. Moita do Sebastião, 2. Galeria da Cisterna (Almonda cave), 3. Gruta de Nossa Senhora das Lapas, 4. Gruta do Cadaval, 5. Gruta das Alcobertas, 6. Gruta do Poço Velho, 7. Gruta dos Ossos, 8. Tholos de Pai Mogo I, 9. Hipogeu de Monte Canelas I, 10. Hipogeu de Monte Canelas III, 11. Bolores, 12. Gruta de Malgasta, 13.Valencia de la Concepción Area 9, 14. Gruta do Carvalhal de Turquel, 15. Cobre las Cruces, 16. Cova de l’Or, 17. Cova de la Sarsa, 18. Cova d’en Pardo, 19. Molinos del Papel, 20. Cova del Barranc del Migdia, 21. Cova del Cantal, 22. Camino de Molino, 23. Fuente Álamo, 24. Lorca-Los Tintes, 25. Lorca-Madre Mercedarias, 26. Lorca-Castillo de Lorca, 27. Rincón de Moncada, 28. La Bastida, 29. Tabayá, 30. Illeta dels Banyets, 319. Cova Bonica, 32. Can Sadurní, 33. Cova d’Avellaner, 34. Els Trocs, 35. Sant Pau de Camp, 36. Barranc d’en Rifà, 37. Balma de Sargantana, 38. Cova de la Ventosa, 39. Cova de Montanissel, 40. Miguel Vives, 41. Can Gambús, 42. Chaves, 43. Valdescusa, 46. Alto de Rodilla, 47. Fuente Celada, 48. Fuente Pecina 1, 49. Fuente Pecina 2, 50. Fuente Pecina 4, 51. Alto de Reinoso, 52. La Mina, 53. La Tarayuela, 54. El Juncal, 55. Arroyal I, 56. El Hundido, 57. Camino de las Yeseras, 58. Humanejos, 59. Valle de las Higueras, 60–61. El Portalón, 62. El Mirador, 63. Es Forat de ses Aritges. Background map of Iberia (copyright holder Universitat Autònoma Barceolna) was modified in Adobe Illustrator CS6 software (www.adobe.com/products/illustrator).
Figure 2
Figure 2
MtDNA haplogroup composition of the prehistoric Iberian groups. Abbreviations: Hunter-gatherers in Europe from the Holocene (HG_HOL), northeast Iberian Neolithic (NEI_Neo), northeast Iberian Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age (NEI_CHA_EBA), central Iberian Neolithic (CI_Neo), central Iberian Chalcolithic (CI_CHA), southwest Iberian Neolithic (SWI_Neo), southwest Iberian Chalcolithic (SWI_CHA), southeast Iberian Neolithic (SEI_Neo), Chalcolithic and Bronze Age (SEI_ CHA_EBA). Relative haplogroup frequencies are presented in Supplementary Table S6. The background map of Iberian Peninsula (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Relief_Map_of_Spain.png#file) is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) was modified in Adobe Illustrator CS6 software (www.adobe.com/products/illustrator).
Figure 3
Figure 3
Principal component analysis based on haplogroup frequencies of 955 individuals from 16 prehistoric groups. The first two components display 42.8% of the total variance. Groups are colored according to their geographical positions: brown: Iberia, purple: France, ochre: Central and East-Central Europe, yellow: Eastern Europe and Near East. For abbreviations of Iberian groups, see legend of Fig. 2. Further abbreviations: Central and North European hunter-gatherers from the Holocene (HG_HOL), Neolithic Anatolia (ANAT) Yamnaya (YAM), Early Neolithic Carpathian Basin (CB_EN), Early Neolithic Germany (GER_EN), Middle Neolithic Germany (GER_MN), Late Neolithic Germany (GER_LN), Early Bronze Age Central Europe (CEU_EBA), Neolithic Gurgy site in France (FRA_GUR), Neolithic Treilles culture in France (TRE). For further information see Supplementary Table S6.

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