Upregulation of Myelin Gene Expression by a Physically-Modified Saline via Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-Mediated Activation of CREB: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis

Neurochem Res. 2018 Feb;43(2):407-419. doi: 10.1007/s11064-017-2435-1. Epub 2017 Nov 15.


An increase in central nervous system (CNS) remyelination and a decrease in CNS inflammation are important steps to halt the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). RNS60 is a bioactive aqueous solution generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille flow under elevated oxygen pressure. Recently we have demonstrated that RNS60 exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we describe promyelinating property of RNS60. RNS60, but not normal saline (NS), RNS10.3 (TCP-modified saline without excess oxygen) or PNS60 (saline containing excess oxygen without TCP modification), stimulated the expression of myelin-specific genes and proteins (myelin basic protein, MBP; myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, MOG and proteolipid protein, PLP) in primary mouse oligodendroglia and mixed glial cells. While investigating the mechanisms, we found that RNS60 treatment induced the activation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in oligodendrocytes, ultimately leading to the recruitment of CREB to the promoters of myelin-specific genes. Furthermore, activation of type 1A p110β/α, but not type 1B p110γ, phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase by RNS60 together with abrogation of RNS60-mediated activation of CREB and upregulation of myelin genes by LY294002 (a specific inhibitor of PI-3 kinase) suggest that RNS60 upregulates the activation of CREB and the expression of myelin-specific molecules in oligodendrocytes via activation of PI3 kinase. These results highlight a novel promyelinating property of RNS60, which may be of benefit for MS and other demyelinating disorders.

Keywords: CREB; Myelin genes; Oligodendrocytes; PI-3 kinase; Physically-modified saline.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein / metabolism
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Multiple Sclerosis / metabolism*
  • Myelin Sheath / drug effects*
  • Myelin Sheath / metabolism*
  • Neuroglia / metabolism
  • Oligodendroglia / metabolism
  • Phosphorylation
  • Sodium Chloride / metabolism*
  • Sodium Chloride / pharmacology
  • Transcriptional Activation / physiology


  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein
  • RNS60
  • Sodium Chloride