Molecular epidemiological survey and phylogenetic analysis of bovine influenza D virus in Japan

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2018 Apr;65(2):e355-e360. doi: 10.1111/tbed.12765. Epub 2017 Nov 16.


The influenza D virus, a new member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, is predominantly found in cattle. Although viral pathology and clinical disease in cattle appear mild, this virus plays an important role as a trigger of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). BRD is a costly illness worldwide. Thus, epidemiological surveys of the influenza D virus are necessary. Here, we conducted a molecular epidemiological survey for the influenza D virus in healthy and respiratory-diseased cattle in Japan. We found that 2.1% (8/377) of the cattle were infected with influenza D. The cattle with and without respiratory symptoms had approximately equal amounts of the virus. A full-genome sequence analysis revealed that the influenza D virus that was isolated in Japan formed an individual cluster that was distinct from the strains found in other countries. These results suggest that this virus might have evolved uniquely in Japan over a long period of time and that the viral pathology of Japanese strains might be different from the strains found in other countries. Continuous surveillance is required to determine the importance of this virus and to characterize its evolution.

Keywords: bovine respiratory disease; cattle; epidemiology; full-genome sequence; influenza D virus; phylogeny.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cattle
  • Cattle Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cattle Diseases / virology
  • Female
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Molecular Epidemiology
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / epidemiology
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / veterinary*
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / virology
  • Phylogeny
  • RNA, Viral / genetics
  • Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction / veterinary
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Thogotovirus / genetics
  • Thogotovirus / isolation & purification*


  • RNA, Viral

Associated data

  • GENBANK/JQ922305-11
  • GENBANK/LC270265-71