Background: The incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes (T1D) varies greatly between populations, and the estimates and/or predictions of the rates would aid in adequate planning of health care resources. The study's aim was to assess the incidence of T1D in the paediatric population of eastern and central Poland.
Methods: In this cohort study covering the period from January 2010 to December 2014, data were collected for children and adolescents below 18 years of age with newly diagnosed T1D living in eastern and central Poland. A total of 2174 children were included in the analysis. The population estimates were from the Central Statistical Office of Poland.
Results: Overall, the annual incidence of T1D increased from 12.84/100,000 in 2010 to 18.46/100,000 in 2014 with the incidence rate (IR) ratio of 1.5 (an increase in the IR by 12.7% per year over 5 years). The lowest increase in the IR by 7.1% per year was seen in 15 to 17-year-olds. In the urban population (age 0-17 years), the overall incidence rate was significantly higher than in subjects from rural communities (P < .02). The incidence of T1D in rural areas was significantly higher (p = .004) in voivodeships of higher population density. Such dependence was not observed in urban areas.
Conclusions: The incidence of T1D in children living in eastern and central Poland increased 1.5-fold over the 5-year observation period with the highest rise in 10 to 14-year-olds and significantly higher rates in urban children compared with their peers living in rural areas.
Keywords: childhood; diabetes mellitus; epidemiology; incidence; prevalence; type 1 diabetes.
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