Pain and Its Control in Reptiles

Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2018 Jan;21(1):1-16. doi: 10.1016/j.cvex.2017.08.001.


Reptiles have the anatomic and physiologic structures needed to detect and perceive pain. Reptiles are capable of demonstrating painful behaviors. Most of the available literature indicates pure μ-opioid receptor agonists are best to provide analgesia in reptiles. Multimodal analgesia should be practiced with every reptile patient when pain is anticipated. Further research is needed using different pain models to evaluate analgesic efficacy across reptile orders.

Keywords: Analgesia; Multimodal analgesia; Nociception; Opioid; Pain; Reptiles.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Analgesia / veterinary*
  • Animals
  • Pain / veterinary*
  • Pain Management / methods
  • Pain Management / veterinary*
  • Receptors, Opioid, mu / agonists
  • Reptiles / physiology*


  • Receptors, Opioid, mu