Purpose: To describe the literature concerning patient demographic characteristics and intra-articular injury seen at arthroscopy after traumatic hip dislocation, describe the reported computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance findings with arthroscopic correlation, and describe the reported arthroscopic treatments performed with complications and outcomes.
Methods: A systematic review was performed following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for assessment of arthroscopy after hip dislocation. Three databases were searched, and study screening and data abstraction were performed in duplicate.
Results: Thirty-one heterogeneous case series and case reports were included in the analysis from the initial search yielding 780 results, including reports of 151 patients who underwent arthroscopy after traumatic hip dislocation. A wide spectrum of intra-articular injury was reported, with a high prevalence of labral tears, intra-articular bodies, ligamentum teres injuries, and chondral damage. CT had a sensitivity of 87.3% for detecting intra-articular fragments; however, 43.3% of patients who had a preoperative CT scan with negative findings for intra-articular fragments did show fragments at arthroscopy. Magnetic resonance had a sensitivity of 95.0% for detecting labral tears. There were no major complications directly attributed to arthroscopic surgery. A total of 75 of 151 patients were followed up for a median of 2 years after surgery, with osteoarthritis reported in 4.0% and avascular necrosis in 2.7%.
Conclusions: In patients with traumatic hip dislocation, heterogeneously reported previously published cases show that arthroscopy reveals a broad spectrum of intra-articular damage amenable to arthroscopic intervention. CT is not sensitive in the detection of intra-articular bodies in all cases. Although no serious periprocedural adverse events were reported, only 49.7% of patients had reported follow-up data, and further prospective studies would be necessary to show the safety and efficacy of arthroscopy in comparison with conventional treatment algorithms of hip dislocation.
Level of evidence: Level IV, systematic review of Level IV studies.
Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.