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. 2017 Nov 16;7(1):15719.
doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-16082-1.

Microbial Communities in the Native Habitats of Agaricus Sinodeliciosus From Xinjiang Province Revealed by Amplicon Sequencing

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Free PMC article

Microbial Communities in the Native Habitats of Agaricus Sinodeliciosus From Xinjiang Province Revealed by Amplicon Sequencing

Jiemin Zhou et al. Sci Rep. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Agaricus sinodeliciosus is an edible species described from China and has been successfully cultivated. However, no studies have yet reported the influence factors implicated in the process of fructification. To better know abiotic and biotic factors, physiochemical characteristics and microbial communities were investigated in five different soil samples collected in the native habitats of specimens from northern Xinjiang, southern Xinjiang, and Zhejiang Province, respectively. There are major differences in texture and morphology among different specimens of A. sinodeliciosus from Xinjiang Province. A. sinodeliciosus from southern Xinjiang was the largest. Concentrations of DOC and TN and C/N ratio are not the main reason for the differences. Microbial communities were analyzed to find out mushroom growth promoting microbes (MGPM), which may lead to the differences. Functional microbes were picked out and can be divided into two categories. Microbes in the first category may belong to MGPM. There may be symbiotic relationships between microbes in the second category and A. sinodeliciosus. Certain analyses of microbial communities support the hypothesis that interactions between microbes and mushrooms would be implicated in morphological variation of the collected mushrooms. Redundancy analysis results indicate that high DOC/NH4+-N ratio and NH4+-N concentration can improve the yield of A. sinodeliciosus.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Macrocharacters of different specimens. (A,B,C,D and E) represent ZRL20152585, ZRL20152589, ZRL20152590, ZRL20152591, and ZRL20151244, respectively. Bar = 1 cm.
Figure 2
Figure 2
DOC concentration, TN concentration, and C/N ratio in different soil samples. C/N ratio was calculated, dividing DOC by TN.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Hierarchical cluster analysis based on 16 S rRNA (a) and ITS (b) paired-end sequencing. The Y-axis is the clustering of the most abundant OTUs (97% similarity) in reads. The X-axis is the clustering of different soil samples.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) based on 16 S rRNA (a) and ITS (b) paired-end sequencing. (A–E) represent the soil samples from specimens of ZRL20152585, ZRL20152589, ZRL20152590, ZRL20152591, and ZRL20151244, respectively.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Overlap of the different bacterial (ac) and fungal (df) communities. (1–3) represent the topsoil samples from different specimens
Figure 6
Figure 6
Taxonomic identities of the shared OTUs in Fig. 5 at phylum level. (ac) represent bacterial compositions of (1–3), respectively. (df) represent fungal compositions of (1–3), respectively.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Taxonomic classification of 16 S rRNA (a) and ITS (b) paired-end sequencing at genus level. Genera making up less than 0.1% of total reads in all communities were classified as “others”.
Figure 8
Figure 8
RDA biplots. (a) Relationships between bacterial community compositions of samples or bacterial groups and environmental variables; (b) Relationships between fungal community compositions of samples or fungal groups and environmental variables.

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