The gram-negative gliding bacterium Cytophaga johnsonae contains not only large quantities of unusual sulfonolipids but also, as we report here, a second class of unusual lipids. These lipids were detected and quantified by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography of lipids from cells grown in the presence of [14C]acetate and shown by chemical studies to be alpha-N-(3-fatty acyloxy fatty acyl)ornithines. Like the sulfonolipids, these ornithine lipids were localized in the outer membrane (whereas phosphatidylethanolamine was the predominant lipid of the inner membrane). In a sulfonolipid-deficient mutant, the missing lipid was replaced, specifically, by an increased amount of ornithine lipid. Cells grown in liquid media contained predominantly ornithine lipids with nonhydroxylated residues in the O-fatty acyl position. In contrast, surface-grown cells contained a high proportion of ornithine lipids in which the O-fatty acyl group was 3-hydroxylated. The sulfonolipids and ornithine lipids are apparently coregulated in the sense that, regardless of perturbations caused by mutation or growth conditions, their total amounts remain constant at 40% of total cell lipid.