The risk factors related to bruxism in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Arch Oral Biol. 2018 Feb;86:18-34. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.11.004. Epub 2017 Nov 11.


Objective: This systematic review was performed to determine the risk factors related to bruxism in children.

Design: This systematic review was conducted with reporting in agreement to the PRISMA statement and according to guidelines from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We conducted a systematic search of seven online databases, with the last search updated on 1st October 2016. The seven databases were Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library database, Web of Science, CNKI, CBM, and WF. The included trial type were RCT, cohort studies, and case-control studies, and bruxism symptoms were assessed by questionnaires and examinations. Eighteen out of the 5637 initially identified studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria.

Results: gender, age, gene, mixed position, anxiety, the nervous, secondhand smoke, high psychological reactions, responsibility, move a lot during sleep, sleeps with mouth open, snores loudly, restless sleep, sleep hours, sleep with light on, noise in room, headache, biting, cheeks tonus, perioral musculature participation, conduct problems, peer problems, emotional symptoms, mental health problems, birth weight, occupation of family head, maternal marital status, hyperactivity, family income seemed to have statistical significance from the present systematic review and meta-analysis.

Conclusions: The risk factors related to bruxism were as follows: Male, gene, mixed position, moves a lot, anxiety, the nervous, psychological reactions, responsibility, secondhand smoke, snore loudly, restless sleep, sleep with light on, noise in room, "sleep hours, ≤8h", headache, objects biting, conduct problems, peer problems, emotional symptoms and mental health problems.

Keywords: Bruxism; Children; Meta-analysis; Risk factors; Systematic review.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Humans
  • Risk Factors
  • Sleep Bruxism / etiology*
  • Sleep Bruxism / psychology*