Context: Adult body fat is associated with birth anthropometry, suggesting a role for metabolic regulators including vitamin D and the adipokines-adiponectin and irisin-which have been reported to interact but, as yet, data remain controversial.
Objective: To study (i) the relationship between vitamin D, its binding protein (VDBP) and the adipokines, adiponectin, and irisin in mothers and neonates at birth and (ii) their effects on neonate anthropometric outcomes.
Design: Cross-sectional study for healthy mothers with full-term and uncomplicated births.
Setting: Primary care.
Subjects: Seventy pairs of newly delivered neonates and their mothers.
Main outcomes features: Biochemical markers from maternal and cord: VDBP, adiponectin, irisin, calcium, albumin, parathyroid hormone, 25OHD, 1,25(OH)2D. Maternal demographic and social characteristics and neonate anthropometric parameters were recorded.
Results: Maternal VDBP levels (364.1 ± 11.9 μg/ml) demonstrated a strong positive correlation with maternal adiponectin (4.4 ± 0.4 μg/ml) and irisin (308.8 ± 50.8 ng/ml) concentrations, which remained significant (p < 0.001 and p < 0.041, respectively) after adjustment with multiple parameters, including weeks of gestation, maternal age, and BMI. The finding of a strong association of VDBP (355.3 ± 29.2 μg/ml) and adiponectin (11.9 ± 2.0 μg/ml) but not irisin (174.4 ± 26.0 ng/ml) was also evident in neonates (p = 0.03 and p = 0.94, respectively). No association was observed in both maternal and neonatal vitamin D, adiponectin, and irisin.
Conclusions: The main findings of this study are (i) the perspective of a potential independent interaction of VDBP and adiponectin in both mothers and neonates and (ii) the lack of a causative model effect of both maternal/neonatal vitamin D status and adipokine profile on neonatal anthropometry at birth, as a surrogate marker of future metabolic health of the offspring.
Keywords: Adipokines; Adiponectin; Irisin; Neonates; Vitamin D; Vitamin D-binding protein.